Make your own free website on Tripod.com

Glossary

abdomen- the posterior section of the body behind the thorax in arthropods.

abundant- marked by a great number.

accompany- to go with or attend as an associate or companion.

account- the statement of explanation of one's conduct.

acorn- the nut of an oak tree.

acute- sharp.

adapt- to make fit usually by modifications.

adaptation- adjustment to environmental conditions.

adult- fully developed and mature.

aggressive- marked by driving forceful energy or initiative.

agile- readily able to move quickly and easily: nimble.

air bladder- a sac containing gas in fishes that assist in respiration and buoyancy.

alternate- a leaf pattern that occurs in a varied or staggered pattern: first one and then the other.

amphibian- any of a class of cold-blooded vertebrates such as frogs, newts, or toads classified between fish and reptiles and having gilled aquatic larvae.

antenna- a moveable segmented organ of sensation on the head of insects, myriapods, and crustaceans.

anterior- situated before or toward the front.

antler- the solid deciduous horn of an animal of the deer family.

anus- the posterior opening of the alimentary canal.

approximate- nearly correct or exact.

arachnid- an arthropod that has 4 pairs of jointed legs.

aromatic- having a strong smell.

asexual reproduction- reproduction without the union of individuals or germ cells.

atmosphere- the air or body of gas surrounding a body.

audio- of or relating to acoustics or sound.

bacteria- any of a class of microscopic plants having round, rodlike, spiral, or filamentous single-celled or non-cellular bodies often aggregated into colonies.

barbel- a slender tactile process on the lips of a fish.

beak- the bill of a bird; the jaws of a bird with their horny covering.

beeswax- wax produced by bees.

bract-a somewhat leaflike, pletalike, or woody structure occuring beneath a flower or fruil or their clusters.

breach- the leap of a whale or fish out of water.

brood- the young of an animal.

buoyancy- the tendency of a body to float.

calyx- the external usually green leafy part of a flower consisting of sepels.

canopy- a cover suspended above the ground as in a forest.

capsize- to turn over.

carapace- a bony or hard case or shield covering the back part of an animal.

carnivore- a flesh-eating animal.

carnivorous- animals that feed only on the flesh of other animals.

carnucle- wart-like structures beneath the chin of a turkey.

castor- the gland of a beaver that produces castoreum.

castoreum- a bitter strong-smelling creamy orange-brown fluid that consists of the dried perinal glands of beaver.

cell- the basic unit of structure of all living things.

cephalothorax- the united head and thorax of an arachnid or higher crustacean.

chelicera- one of the anterior pair of appendages of an arachnid often specialized as fangs.

chitin- an amphorous horny polysaccharide that forms part of the hard outer part of insects, crustaceans, and some invertebrates.

chlorophyll- the green photosynthetic coloring matter of plants.

chrysalis- the pupa of insects such as butterflies that pass the pupal stage in a condition enclosed in a hard case.

cillia- hairlike projections surrounding a microorganism enabling it to move.

circulatory system- a system in higher animals consisting of the heart and blood vessels.

cold-blooded- having body temperatures that are not internally regulated but maintain temperatures of the environment.

composite- made up of two or more factors.

compound leaf- a leaf in which the blade is divided to the midrib forming two or more leaflets on a common axis.

conifer- trees and shrubs that grow cones.

consume- to eat or drink in quantity.

contractilevacuole- an opening n a unicellular organism that contracts regualarly to discharge fluid from the body.

convenience- freedom from discomfort.

corolla- the petals of a flower making up the inner floral envelope.

crest- the showy tuft on the head of a bird.

crustacean- an arthropod that usually has five pairs of jointed legs.

cub- a young carnivorous mammal.

cud- food brought up into the mouth by a ruminating animal from its first stomach to be chewed again.

cunning- deterous or crafty in the use of special resources or skill in attaining an end.

DDT- a colorless, odorless water insoluable chrystalline insecticide that tends to collect in ecosystems and to have toxic effects on organisms.

decay- to undergo decomposition.

decomposer- an organism that breaks down the remains of dead plants and animals into simpler substances.

decomposition- to separate into constituent parts or elements.

den- a lair of a wild, usually predatory, animal.

desperation- a loss of hope.

develop- to expand by a process of growth.

dextrous- mentally skillful of skillful with one's hands.

diameter- the distance in a straight line across a circle at the center.

digestive system- the body system that consists of the esophagus, the stomach, large intestine, and small intestine that takes in food and breaks it down into parts the body can use.

direction- the line or course on which something is moving or is aimed to move or along which something is pointed or facing.

diurnal- active chiefly during the daytime.

diverse- having various forms or qualities.

dormant- temporarily devoid of external activity.

dorsal- related to or situated on or near the back of an animal.

drake- a male duck.

drone- the male of a bee that has no stinger and gathers no honey.

duct- a bodily tube or vessel especially suited for carrying secretions of glands.

east- the direction on the horizon where the sun rises.

ecology- the study of interactions between living things and their environment.

egg- the female reproductive body.

emit- to send out.

encounter- a chance meeting.

endocrine system- the body system consisting of glands that secret hormones needed for body functions.

environment- the surroundings of an organism.

essay- an analytic or imperpretative literary composition.

ethylene- a colorless, flammable gaseous unsaturated hydrocarbon.

excavate- to dig out and remove.

exceed- to be greater than or superior to.

excretory system- the body system that contains organs needed for the elimination of waste products from the body.

excursion- a going out or forth: expedition.

exoskeleton- an external supportive covering of an animal.

experience- direct participation in events.

express- to represent in words; to state; to make known.

exude- to ooze out.

fang- any of a long, sharp tooth. In venomous snakes a long erectile tooth.

feather- one of the light, horny epidermal outgrowths that forms the external covering of birds.

fertilize- the joining of a sperm cell and an egg cell resulting in a new individual.

fin- an external membranous process of an aquatic animal (such as a fish) used for propelling or guiding the body.

fission- the splitting or breaking into parts.

fissure- a crack or divide.

flagellum- a long tapering process that projects singly or in groups from a cell and is the primary organ of motion of many microorganisms.

flamboyant- given to a showy or dashing display.

fledgling- an immature or inexperienced organism.

flicker- to waver unsteadily; to move in a quick glancing manner.

flower- the ornate, reproductive part of a plant having male and female parts.

food chain- the transfer in energy in the form of food from one organism to another.

forage- food for animals especially when taken by browsing or grazing.

fossil- preserved in mineralized or petrified form from a past geologic age.

fruit- the edible reproductive body of a seed.

frustration- disappointment.

fungi- a major classification group; the kingdom that contains living things that are not green and that do not make their own food.

furrier- a fur dealer.

fuse- to join or mix.

futile- serving no useful purpose.

gestation- period in which young are carried in the uterus: pregnancy.

gill- an organ for obtaining oxygen from water.

gland- any of various secreting organs

guano- a substance composed chiefly of excretement and used as a fertilizer.

habit- a custom or usual pattern of behavior acquired by frequent repetition.

habitat- a place or type of site where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives.

head- the upper or anterior division of the body that contains the brain.

hemispere- one-half of a sphere.

hemispherical- one of two half spheres formed by a plane through the sphere's center.

herbivore- a plant eating animal.

herbivorous- animals that feed only on plants.

hexagonal- having six angles and six sides.

hibernate- to pass the winter in a torpid or resting state.

hive- a place containing a colony of bees swarming with busy occupants.

hock joint- the tarsal joint in the hind limb of a four-legged animal similar to an ankle in man, but elevated and bending backward.

honeycomb- a mass of hexagonal wax cells built by honeybees in their nests to contain brood and stores of honey.

hoof- a curved covering of horn that protects the front of or encloses the ends of the digits of an ungulate mammal and that corresponds to a nail or claw.

incisor- a tooth adapted for cutting which is located in front of canine teeth in mammals.

inclement- severe; stormy

incubate- to sit on so as to hatch by the warmth of an animal especially a bird.

inhabit- to occupy as a place or settled residence or habitat.

inhabitant- one that occupies a particular place regularly, routinely, or for a period of time.

inner ear- the essential organ of hearing and equilibrium located in the terporal bone and innervated by the auditory nerve.

intensity- the amount of energy.

interdigital- between the toes or fingers.

invertebrates-animals lacking a spinal column.

keel- assembly of parts arranged together.

kit- a young undersized fur-bearing animal.

larvae- the immature, wingless, and often vermiform feeding from that hatchers from the egg of many insects, alters in size causing several molts.

leaflet- on of the divisions of a compound leaf.

lease- to rent a piece of property real or personal.

legendary- something popularly regarded, but not historically verifiable; relating to a legend.

litter- offspring at one birth of a multiparous animal.

lobe- a covered projection or division that is usually round.

longitudinal- running lengthwise.

mammal- all of a class of higher vertebrates consisting of man and all other animals that nourish their young with milk secreted by mammary glands and have hair on their skin.

mammory glands- glands in mammals that produce milk to feed young from females' bodies.

map- a representation usually on a flat surface of the whole or part of an area.

marsupial- any of an order of lowly mammals comprising wombats, kangaroos, opossums, bandicoots and related animals that with few exceptions develop no placenta and have a pouch in the abdomen of females containing the teats and serving for carrying the young.

matriarchal- the female rules the family, group, or state.

mature- having attained final state.

membrane- a soft pliable sheet or layer of plant or animal origin.

metabolic process- the sum of the processes of building up and breaking down of protoplasm incidental to life.

metallic- having appearance of metal.

metamorphosis- a change in physical form.

metatarsal (metatarsus)- part of the foot of man or the hind foot of four-legged animals located between the tarsals and the phalanges.

migrate- to move from one place to another.

migratory- animals that migrate.

mollusk-an animal that has a soft body that is covered with a hard shell.

molt- to shed hair, feathers, shells, horns, or an outer layer periodically.

monogamous- having one mate.

monotony- tedious sameness.

musk- a substance with a penetrating persistent odor obtained from a sea beneath the abdominal skin of a musk deer or other mammal.

mycelium- the mass of interwoven filamentous substance that forms in the vegetative portion of the thallus of a fungus.

nectar- a sweet liquid found in flowers.

nervous system- a body system consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves extending throughout the body.

nitrogen- a colorless, odorless, gaseous element that constitutes 78 percent of the earth's atmosphere.

nocturnal- active at night.

north- the direction of the north terresterial pole; toward the top of a map.

northeast- a compass point located between north and east.

northwest- the direction on a compass located between north and west.

nucleus- the center of a cell.

nymph- an immature insect stage prior to adulthood.

observe- to inspect or take note of.

offspring- the young of a species.

omnivore- an animal that eats plants and other animals.

omnivorous- feeding on both vegetable and animal substances.

ovary- the female reproductive organ.

ovule- an outgrowth of the ovary of a seed plant; a small egg.

panacea- a remedy for all ills.

paralysis- complete or partial loss of function especially when involving motion or sensation in part of the body.

parasite- an organism living in or on another organism.

paws- the foot of a quadraped.

pectoral- of, situated in, or on the chest.

pedipalp- either of the second pair of appendages of an arachnid (as a spider) that are near the mouth and are often modified for a special function.

peer- to look narrowly or curiously.

perceive- to attain awareness or understanding of.

perennial- present at all seasons of the year; persisting for several years.

photosynthesis- process by which green plants make food.

pituitary gland- a small oval-shaped organ attached to the infundibulum of the brain which produces secretions directly or indirectly controlling body functions.

plumage- the entire clothing of feathers of a bird.

plumbing- pipes, fixtures and other objects concerned with the distribution and use of water.

pollen- a mass of microspores in a seed plant produced by the male part of the plant.

population- a group of organisms belonging to one species living in a given area.

posterior- situated behind or toward the back.

poult- a baby turkey.

predator- one that preys, destroys, or devours.

prey- an animal taken by a predator for food.

proboscis- an elongated or extended tubular process of the oral cavity of an invertebrate.

protozoans- any of a phyllum or subkingdom of minute protoplasmic acellular or unicellular animals with varied morphology.

pseudopod- an organism with a temporary protrusion or retrievable process of protoplasm of a cell.

pupa- stage of metomorphosis following larva.

pupate- to pass through a pupal stage.

queen- the fertile, fully developed female of social bees, ants, or termites whose function is to lay eggs.

rabies- an acute virus disease of the nervous system of warm-blooded animals usually transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal.

raptor- a bird of prey.

rectum- the terminal part of the intestine from the sigmoid flexure to the anus.

recycle- to pass again through a series of changes or treatments.

regurgitate- to throw or pour back or out from or as if from a cavity.

reiterate- to say over: repeat.

reproductive system- the body system that produces sperm in males and eggs in females.

respiratory system- the body system consisting of a trachea, and lungs that takes oxygen to the blood and provides a means of burning food to provide energy needed for body functions.

retina- the sensory membrane of the eyes that receives the image formed by the lens is the immediate instrument of vision connected to the brain by the optic nerve.

rhizoids- a rootlike structure.

rodent- any of an order of small, gnawing mammals that have a single pair or incisors in the upper jaw with a chisel sharp edge.

rods- long, rod-shaped sensory bodies in the retina of the eye responding to faint light.

ruminant- characterized by a suborder of even-toed hoofed mammals such as sheep, deer, etc., that chew cud and have a complex 3 or 4 chambered stomach.

samara- a one seeded, winged fruit as of a maple, elm, or ash tree.

saprophyte- a plant living or dead or decaying organic material.

scale- a small flattened plate covering fish and reptiles.

seclude- screened or hidden from view.

segment- a piece or part or fragment of something.

sepal- one of the modified leaves comprising the calyx.

sever- to remove by or as if by cutting.

sexual reproduction- reproduction requiring a male and a female.

shroud- something that covers, screens, or protects.

simple- a pattern of leaves where one is attached to a branch.

skeleton- a rigid, supportive structure or framework of an organism.

skull- the skeleton of the head that contains the brain.

solitude- the quality or state of being alone.

sophisticated- wise in the ways of the world.

south- the direction of the south terrestrial pole; toward the bottom of a map.

southeast- the direction on a compass located between south and east.

southwest- the direction on a compass located between south and west.

spawn- to produce or deposit eggs.

species- a class of individuals having common attributes and designated by a common name.

sperm- the male reproductive cells.

spinneret- an organ as of a spider or caterpillar for producing threads of silk from the secretion of silk glands.

stalked (buds)- having a narrow neck-like base.

stamen- the organ of a flower that produces the male reproductive cells.

stigma- a small scar on a plant.

stipules- either of a pair of appendages borne at the base of a leaf.

submit- to present or propose to another for review, consideration, or decision.

sustain- to keep up, prolong, or nourish.

swarm- a great number of honeybees emigrating together from a hive in the company of a queen to form a new colony elsewhere.

swimmeret- one of a series of small unspecialized appendages under the abdomen of many crustaceans are best developed in some decapods and are used in some cases for swimming or carrying eggs.

talon- the claw of an animal especially a bird of prey.

tannin- a soluable astringent of plant origin used in tanning or dyeing.

tarsal (tarsus)- part of a foot of a vertebrate between the metatarsals and the leg.

temperature- the degree of hotness or coldness measured on a definite scale.

tendon- cord of connective tissue.

tentacle- a flexible, elongated tactile process chiefly on the head or mouth.

terrain- the physical features of a tract of land.

terrestial- relating to land, earth.

thorax- the part of the body located between the ear and the abdomen.

tissue- a group of cells that are specialized working together in aggregate.

tom- a male turkey.

torrential- caused by or resulting from action of rapid streams.

trachea- the windpipe leading air toward the lungs.

tranquil- free from agitation, disturbance, or turmoil.

transient- passing by or through a place with only a brief stay or sojourn.

transistor- an electronic device similar to an electron tube consisting of small block of a semiconductor that has at least 3 electrodes.

transpire- to be revealed, known; to come to pass.

ultrasonic- sound waves higher than humans can hear.

urushiol- an oily toxic substance found in poison ivy and related plants.

vegetable- of or relating to growing plants.

vegetation- plant life forms.

venom- a poisonous substance secreted by some animals such as snakes, scorpions, or spiders.

venture- to proceed despite danger.

vertebra- one of the bony or cartilaginuous segments composing the spinal column.

viper- a venomous or reputedly venomous snake.

vixen- a female fox.

warm-blooded- an animal having relatively high and constant body temperature relatively independent of the surroundings.

wattle- a piece of skin about the head of a bird.

wean- to cause to take food by means other than nursing.

webbed feet- feet having tissue between the digits suited for swimming.

wedge- a substance that tapers to a thin edge and is used for splitting.

west- a direction on the horizon in which the sun sets; the direction to the left of one facing right.

worker- one of the sexually underdeveloped and usually sterile members of a colony of bees, ants, or termites.